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Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20586084     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics.
Authors:
Marcela L Martínez; Diana O Labuckas; Alicia L Lamarque; Damián M Maestri
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the science of food and agriculture     Volume:  90     ISSN:  1097-0010     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Sci. Food Agric.     Publication Date:  2010 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376334     Medline TA:  J Sci Food Agric     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1959-67     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Affiliation:
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV, CONICET-UNC), Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos (ICTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales (FCEFyN-UNC), Av. Vélez Sarsfield 1611, X5016GCA Córdoba, Argentina.
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