Document Detail

Voluntary, spontaneous, and reflex blinking in Parkinson's disease.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18175339     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Blinking, a motor act consisting of a closing and an opening eyelid movement, can be performed voluntarily, spontaneously, and reflexly. In this study we investigated the kinematic features of voluntary, spontaneous, and reflex blinking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), OFF and ON dopaminergic treatment. Patients were asked to blink voluntarily as fast as possible. Spontaneous blinking was recorded for a minute during which the subjects just relaxed. Reflex blinking was evoked by electrical stimulation on the supraorbital nerve. Eyelid movements were recorded with the SMART analyzer motion system. Patients OFF therapy paused longer than controls during voluntary blinking but not during spontaneous and reflex blinking. The blink rate tended to be lower in patients OFF therapy than in controls and the spontaneous blinking had abnormally low amplitude and peak velocity. Finally, in patients OFF therapy the excitability of the neural circuit mediating the closing phase of the reflex blinking was enhanced. Dopaminergic treatment shortened the pause during voluntary blinking and increased the blink rate. In PD patients the longer pauses between the closing and opening phase in comparison to normal subjects, suggest bradykinesia of voluntary blinking. PD patients also display kinematic abnormalities of spontaneous blinking and changes in the excitability of the closing phase of reflex blinking.
Rocco Agostino; Matteo Bologna; Loredana Dinapoli; Bruno Gregori; Giovanni Fabbrini; Neri Accornero; Alfredo Berardelli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society     Volume:  23     ISSN:  1531-8257     ISO Abbreviation:  Mov. Disord.     Publication Date:  2008 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-05-01     Completed Date:  2008-05-30     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8610688     Medline TA:  Mov Disord     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  669-75     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2007 Movement Disorder Society
Department of Neurological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use
Blinking* / physiology
Electric Stimulation
Levodopa / therapeutic use
Middle Aged
Parkinson Disease / drug therapy,  physiopathology*
Reaction Time
Reference Values
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antiparkinson Agents; 0/Levodopa

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