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Vitamin K intake and status are low in hemodialysis patients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22648294     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Vitamin K is essential for the activity of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including matrix Gla28 protein and osteocalcin; an inhibitor of vascular calcification and a bone matrix protein, respectively. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to the production of non-carboxylated, inactive proteins and this could contribute to the high risk of vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. To help resolve this, we measured vitamin K(1) and K(2) intake (4-day food record), and the vitamin K status in 40 hemodialysis patients. The intake was low in these patients (median 140 μg/day), especially on days of dialysis and the weekend as compared to intakes reported in a reference population of healthy adults (mean K(1) and K(2) intake 200 μg/day and 31 μg/day, respectively). Non-carboxylated bone and coagulation proteins were found to be elevated in 33 hemodialysis patients, indicating subclinical hepatic vitamin K deficiency. Additionally, very high non-carboxylated matrix Gla28 protein levels, endemic to all patients, suggest vascular vitamin K deficiency. Thus, compared to healthy individuals, hemodialysis patients have a poor overall vitamin K status due to low intake. A randomized controlled trial is needed to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduces the risk of arterial calcification and mortality in hemodialysis patients.Kidney International advance online publication, 30 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.191.
Ellen C M Cranenburg; Leon J Schurgers; Herma H Uiterwijk; Joline W J Beulens; Gerdien W Dalmeijer; Ralf Westerhuis; Elke J Magdeleyns; Marjolein Herfs; Cees Vermeer; Gozewijn D Laverman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Kidney international     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1523-1755     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-5-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0323470     Medline TA:  Kidney Int     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
VitaK and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
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