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Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22878781     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE: Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. METHODS: We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D(2) + 25(OH)D(3)] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA) and Hadzabe (HA) with traditional life styles and low fish intakes, and people from Same (SA; intermediate fish), Sengerema (SE; high fish), and Ukerewe (UK; high fish). Samples derived from non-pregnant adults (MA, HA, SE), pregnant women (MA, SA, SE), mother-infant couples at delivery (UK), infants at delivery and their lactating mothers at 3 days (MA, SA, SE), and lactating mothers at 3 months postpartum (SA, SE). Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (RBC-DHA) was determined as a proxy for fish intake. RESULTS: The mean ± SD 25(OH)D of non-pregnant adults and cord serum were 106.8 ± 28.4 and 79.9 ± 26.4 nmol/L, respectively. Pregnancy, delivery, ethnicity (which we used as a proxy for sunlight exposure), RBC-DHA, and age were the determinants of 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D increased slightly with age. RBC-DHA was positively related to 25(OH)D, notably 25(OH)D(2). Pregnant MA (147.7 vs. 118.3) and SE (141.9 vs. 89.0) had higher 25(OH)D than non-pregnant counterparts (MA, SE). Infant 25(OH)D at delivery in Ukerewe was about 65 % of maternal 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: Our ancient 25(OH)D amounted to about 115 nmol/L and sunlight exposure, rather than fish intake, was the principal determinant. The fetoplacental unit was exposed to high 25(OH)D, possibly by maternal vitamin D mobilization from adipose tissue, reduced insulin sensitivity, trapping by vitamin D-binding protein, diminished deactivation, or some combination.
Authors:
Martine F Luxwolda; Remko S Kuipers; Ido P Kema; E van der Veer; D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer; Frits A J Muskiet
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1436-6215     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur J Nutr     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100888704     Medline TA:  Eur J Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Laboratory Medicine, Room Y 3.181, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands, mfluxwolda@hotmail.com.
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