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Vitamin D intake in Australian adults and the modeled effects of milk and breakfast cereal fortification.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23759266     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D intake from foods or supplements is a safe and attractive means to improve vitamin D status of populations. The aim of this study was to help identify population subgroups that would benefit most from efforts to increase intake. To do so, we investigated which personal characteristics are associated with vitamin D intake in an Australian population and modeled possible effects of expanded food fortification practices.
METHODS: We investigated vitamin D intake in a population-based random sample of 785 adults, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and assessed associations with personal and behavioral characteristics. We identified vitamin D food sources and modeled the hypothetical effects of blanket fortification of milk and breakfast cereals.
RESULTS: Average total vitamin D intake was 4.4 (±4.0) μg/g and below adequate intake for most participants in all age and sex subgroups. Higher intake was associated with being female, having a serious medical condition, energy intake below the median, and vitamin D supplement use (all P < 0.05). The "meat, fish, and eggs" food group contributed most to total vitamin D intake (51%), followed by dairy products and related foods (43%). If all milk and breakfast cereals were to be fortified with vitamin D, the average intake of vitamin D from foods would increase from 3.6 (±2.4) μg/d to 6.3 (±3.2) μg/d, with similar increases in all age and sex subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D intake in Australia is generally below recommended levels, and few personal characteristics help to identify subgroups with low intake. Blanket vitamin D fortification of milk and breakfast cereals would substantially increase average vitamin D intake in Australian adults of all ages.
Naomi Jayaratne; Maria Celia B Hughes; Torukiri I Ibiebele; Sanne van den Akker; Jolieke C van der Pols
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)     Volume:  29     ISSN:  1873-1244     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutrition     Publication Date:    2013 Jul-Aug
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8802712     Medline TA:  Nutrition     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1048-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cancer and Population Studies Group, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia.
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