Document Detail


Violations of the usual sequence of drug initiation: prevalence and associations with the development of dependence in the New Zealand Mental Health Survey.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18925336     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: For 3 decades, studies have reported that the usual sequence of drug initiation is licit drugs, then cannabis, and then other illicit drugs. This article describes the prevalence of violations of this sequence, the predictors of violations, and the relationship between violations and the onset of alcohol or drug dependence.
METHOD: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative sample with 12,992 face-to-face interviews carried out in 2003-2004. The response rate was 73.3%. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used in the survey. Reports of the age at first use were obtained for alcohol and drugs but not for smoking.
RESULTS: Violations of the usual sequence of drug initiation were uncommon in the population (2.6%). Use of other illicit drugs before cannabis was the main violation, found in 2.3% of alcohol users, 3.0% of cannabis users, 8.6% of cocaine users, and 16.7% of those who had used other illicit drugs. Use of other illicit drugs before cannabis was more predominant in younger cohorts and those with more early-onset internalizing disorders. Violations had little association with the development of dependence in users when other important predictors such as age at onset of use and the number of illicit drugs used were taken into account. Internalizing disorders and early-onset bipolar disorder also predicted dependence.
CONCLUSIONS: In New Zealand, violations of the gateway sequence are not common and they are not markers of progression to dependence.
Authors:
J Elisabeth Wells; Magnus A McGee
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs     Volume:  69     ISSN:  1937-1888     ISO Abbreviation:  J Stud Alcohol Drugs     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-10-17     Completed Date:  2009-01-06     Revised Date:  2013-06-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101295847     Medline TA:  J Stud Alcohol Drugs     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  789-95     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch Mail Centre, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. elisabeth.wells@otago.ac.nz
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Aged
Alcohol-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
Cocaine-Related Disorders / epidemiology
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse / epidemiology
Mental Disorders / complications
Middle Aged
New Zealand / epidemiology
Prevalence
Street Drugs*
Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
Young Adult
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R01 DA016558/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01-TW006481/TW/FIC NIH HHS; R01MH070884/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R13-MH066849/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R13-MH069864/MH/NIMH NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Street Drugs
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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