Document Detail

Villous sprouting: fundamental mechanisms of human placental development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11045879     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
There is increasing evidence that maldevelopment of the placental villous tree can play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pregnancy diseases. In this review we present the most recent advances of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the early formation of chorionic villi. In particular we focus our attention on the structural events during early villous sprouting leading to the formation of the mesenchymal villi which are the forerunners of all other villous types, i.e. immature intermediate villi, stem villi, mature intermediate villi and terminal villi. Early villous sprouting starts as 'hot spots' which are circumscribed areas consisting of highly proliferating cytotrophoblastic and stromal cells. The post-proliferative cytotrophoblastic cells fuse with the overlying syncytium leading to the formation of the trophoblastic sprouts. When villous mesenchyme invades the trophoblastic sprouts, the latter are transformed into villous sprouts. The vascularization of the villous sprouts leads to the formation of the mesenchymal villi, the most basic villous type. This process is repeated throughout pregnancy. We analyse the influence of various extracellular matrix molecules, e.g. tenascin and hyaluronic acid, on the formation of hot spots and mesenchymal villi as well as the transformation of the latter in other villous types. We present a critical survey on the data on vessel formation related to villous sprouting and morphogenesis of mesenchymal villi as well as the expression of various angiogenic factors and their receptors.
M Castellucci; G Kosanke; F Verdenelli; B Huppertz; P Kaufmann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human reproduction update     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1355-4786     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum. Reprod. Update     Publication Date:    2000 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-02-15     Completed Date:  2001-02-15     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9507614     Medline TA:  Hum Reprod Update     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  485-94     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Normal Human Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, Ancona, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Chorionic Villi / blood supply,  growth & development*,  metabolism
Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
Growth Substances / metabolism
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Neovascularization, Physiologic
Placenta / blood supply,  growth & development*,  metabolism
Receptors, Growth Factor / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Growth Substances; 0/Receptors, Growth Factor

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