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Vigorous SO42- influx via the gills is balanced by enhanced SO42- excretion by the kidney in eels after seawater adaptation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22539745     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is maintained at ∼1 mmol(-1) l(-1) in teleost fishes that are exposed to media of varying SO(4)(2-) concentrations. We first measured plasma SO(4)(2-) concentration in euryhaline fishes that adapt to both SO(4)(2-)-poor freshwater (<0.5 mmol l) and SO(4)(2-)-enriched seawater (30 mmol l(-1)). Unlike Mozambique tilapia and chum salmon, Japanese eels maintained higher plasma SO(4)(2-) concentration in freshwater (6.2±2.3 mmol l(-1)) than in seawater (0.7±0.1 mmol l(-1)). We then analyzed the whole-body SO(4)(2-) budget using (35)SO(4)(2-). (35)SO(4)(2-) influx in seawater-adapted eels occurred by 84.5% via body surfaces and 15.5% via digestive tracts. The SO(4)(2-) influx was higher in seawater eels (1.55 μmol kg(-1) h(-1)) than in freshwater eels (0.09 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)), but it was facilitated in freshwater eels when the difference in SO(4)(2-) concentrations between plasma and environment was taken into account (freshwater eels, 6.2 vs 0.3 mmol l(-1); seawater eels, 0.7 vs 30 mmol l(-1)). One hour after injection of (35)SO(4)(2-) into the blood of seawater eels, the kidney excreted ∼97% of the ionized form, whereas the radioactivity increased gradually in the medium and the rectal fluid more than 3 h after injection. As the radioactivity was poorly adsorbed by anion-exchange resin, (35)SO(4)(2-) in the blood may be incorporated into cells and excreted by the intestine, gills and skin, probably as mucus. These results show that freshwater eels take up SO(4)(2-) actively from the environment, but seawater eels cope with the obligatory influx of SO(4)(2-) through the gills by excreting excess SO(4)(2-) via the kidney and in mucus.
Taro Watanabe; Yoshio Takei
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of experimental biology     Volume:  215     ISSN:  1477-9145     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Exp. Biol.     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0243705     Medline TA:  J Exp Biol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1775-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Marine Bioscience, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan.
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