Document Detail

Venous hemodynamics of the lower extremities in response to electrical stimulation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9685103     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the calf muscle pump function using an air plethysmograph (APG) applied to the lower leg of subjects during three different tiptoe exercises. DESIGN: A controlled trial design was selected to compare the hemodynamic effects of three exercise conditions on a group of able-bodied, healthy patients. SETTING: Testing was performed in an outpatient clinic at a rehabilitation hospital. SUBJECTS: Patient groups were selected from a convenience sample of 10 healthy volunteers with normal venous capacitance and no reflux, determined through impedance pleythysmography before the study. INTERVENTIONS: Three exercise conditions undertaken by each subject consisted of loaded and unloaded lower leg muscle contractions produced by (1) voluntary contraction (VOL), (2) electrical stimulation of the gastocnemius-soleus and tibialis anterior muscles (ES), and (3) combined ES and VOL (ES/VOL). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Hemodynamic measurements of venous filling index upon standing from the supine (VFI), ejection fraction (EF), ejection volume (EV), residual volume (RV), and residual volume fraction (RVF) were recorded after each protocol. These results were used to compare the lower leg hemodynamic effects of the treatments. RESULTS: Combined ES/VOL single tiptoe exercise produced the highest EV (97.8mL), followed by VOL (80.6mL) and ES (51.7mL) (p < .0008). The EF was also highest for combined ES/VOL (73.1%), followed by VOL (64.5%) and ES (37.8%) (p < .0001). Ten tiptoe ES exercises produced the highest RV (96.2mL), followed by ES/VOL (44.7mL) and VOL (28.2mL) (p < .0001). RVF was also highest in the ES group (71%), followed by ES/VOL (33.4%) and VOL (22.8%) (p < .0001). CONCLUSION: Periodic single ES-induced calf muscle contractions produced significant muscle pump function and could be used to improve venous blood flow and reduce stasis in the lower leg. Continuous ES-induced contractions, on the other hand, could improve lower leg peripheral perfusion while eliciting the physiologic venous muscle pump. Higher RV and RVF after 10 ES-induced contractions in this sample of healthy subjects with normal VFI may be caused by an increase in arterial blood perfusion after repeated ES-induced contractions.
P D Faghri; J J Votto; C F Hovorka
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation     Volume:  79     ISSN:  0003-9993     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Phys Med Rehabil     Publication Date:  1998 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-08-05     Completed Date:  1998-08-05     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985158R     Medline TA:  Arch Phys Med Rehabil     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  842-8     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
School of Allied Health, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269-2101, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Hemodynamics / physiology*
Isometric Contraction / physiology*
Leg / blood supply*
Reference Values
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation*
Venous Pressure / physiology*

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