Document Detail


Vasculopathy, hematological, and immune abnormalities associated with levamisole-contaminated cocaine use.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22152487     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: To report 4 cases of cocaine-related purpura and to review previously reported cases of levamisole, levamisole-contaminated cocaine, and cocaine-induced vasculopathy.
METHODS: We describe 4 patients suspected of vasculopathy associated with levamisole-tainted cocaine use. A retrospective review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, PubJet, MD consult, and Cochrane review databases.
RESULTS: Four cases (2 females and 2 males), 46 to 55 years of age, presented with cocaine-related purpura, mainly affecting the ears, neutropenia, and autoantibodies. Skin biopsies revealed a mixed pattern of leukocytoclastic vasculitis and microvascular thrombosis in 2 cases, and pure thrombosis in the third case. The mixed vasculopathic pattern in association with neutropenia, both known adverse effects of levamisole, and levamisole positivity in 2 cases point to this compound as the true etiologic agent in our patients. Eleven cases of levamisole-contaminated cocaine-induced vasculopathy have been described in the English literature. Among these, 10 were females. Age range was 22 to 57 years. Urine levamisole positivity was tested and confirmed in 3 of the 11 cases. The clinical characteristics, laboratory features, histology, treatment, and recovery rates were compared for the published cases of levamisole, levamisole-contaminated cocaine, and cocaine-induced vasculopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: Adulterated cocaine abuse is an increasingly recognized phenomenon in North America. Levamisole is among the many contaminants that have been detected in seized cocaine throughout North America and Europe. Recent reports described an association between levamisole-tainted cocaine and purpuric skin rash, neutropenia, and the presence of autoantibodies.
Authors:
Tahir A Khan; Raquel Cuchacovich; Luis R Espinoza; Suman Lata; Nirupa J Patel; Ignacio Garcia-Valladares; Michele M Salassi; Charles V Sanders
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism     Volume:  41     ISSN:  1532-866X     ISO Abbreviation:  Semin. Arthritis Rheum.     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1306053     Medline TA:  Semin Arthritis Rheum     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  445-54     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Section of Rheumatology, LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA.
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