Document Detail

Vaginal 3D ultrasound: a method of studying anal anatomy and function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21053378     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound is increasingly used to study anal function, but mainly by endoanal techniques, which are less suitable for assessing the mucosa and the natural position of its surrounding structures. Here we study the anal canal, including the mucosa comparing vaginal and endoanal 3D ultrasound during rest and squeeze. METHODS: Vaginal 3D ultrasound was used in a cross-sectional study measuring the anal mucosa and sphincters during rest and squeeze in 20 0-gravida, comparing the results with those of endoanal measurements. The anal mucosa, the ano-rectal curvature (ARC), the ano-vaginal angle (AVA) and distance (AVD) were also determined. RESULTS: The volume of the anal canal using the vaginal technique was 7.93 (SD 2.26) and 7.34 (1.54) cm(3) during rest and squeeze, respectively (p = 0.082). The ARC became more acute (3.46 vs. 4.12), p = 0.031. AVA increased (31.7° vs. 35.8°), p = 0.010. The volume of the anal mucosa (3.12 cm(3)) did not change (p = 0.193), but was distorted during squeeze at the level of the puborectalis sling (p<0.001). The length of the anal canal was 1 cm longer (p<0.001), the IAS volume larger (2.97 and 2.08 cm(3)), p = 0.003, and the EAS volume smaller (1.85 and 3.96 cm(3)), p<0.001, with the 3D vaginal technique compared with the endoanal measurements. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the endoanal method, vaginal 3D ultrasound provides a complete assessment of the anal canal including the mucosa. This method seems suitable for functional studies such as in the present one, which shows that voluntary squeeze increases the angulation of the anal canal and distorts the bowel cross-section at the level of the puborectal muscle. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ingrid Petrikke Olsen; Tom Wilsgaard; Torvid Kiserud
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2010-11-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-0705     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9108340     Medline TA:  Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hammerfest Hospital, Hammerfest, Norway.
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