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Using a two-stage hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) to achieve complete perchlorate reduction in the presence of nitrate and sulfate.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23298383     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
We evaluated a strategy for achieving complete reduction of perchlorate (ClO4-) in the presence of much higher concentrations of sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). Full ClO4- reduction was achieved by using a two-stage MBfR with controlled NO3- surface loadings to each stage. With an equivalent NO3- surface loading larger than 0.65±0.04 g N/m2-d, the lead MBfR removed about 87±4 % of NO3- and 30±8% of ClO4-. This decreased the equivalent surface loading of NO3- to 0.34±0.04 - 0.53±0.03 g N/m2-d for the lag MBfR, in which ClO4- was reduced to non-detectable. SO42- reduction was eliminated without compromising full ClO4- reduction using a higher flow rate that gave an equivalent NO3- surface loading of 0.94±0.05 g N/m2-d in the lead MBfR and 0.53±0.03 g N/m2-d in the lag MBfR. Results from qPCR and pyrosequencing showed that the lead and lag MBfRs had distinctly different microbial communities when SO42- reduction took place. Denitrifying bacteria (DB), quantified using the nirS and nirK genes, dominated the biofilm in the lead MBfR, but perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), quantified using the pcrA gene, became more important in the lag MBfR. The facultative anaerobic bacteria Dechloromonas, Rubrivivax, and Enterobacter were dominant genera in the lead MBfR, where their main function was to reduce NO3-. With a small NO3- surface loading and full ClO4- reduction, the dominant genera shifted to ClO4--reducing bacteria Sphaerotilus, Rhodocyclaceae, and Rhodobacter in the lag MBfR.
Authors:
He-Ping Zhao; Aura Ontiveros-Valencia; Youneng Tang; Bi-O Kim; Zehra Ilhan; Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown; Bruce E Rittmann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-9
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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