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Using reproductive effect markers to observe subclinical events, reduce misclassification, and explore mechanism.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2050069     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Biological markers of effect, in general less widely available than exposure markers, do exist in the field of reproduction and increasingly are being used in epidemiological studies. Several such markers, including semen quality, menstrual hormones, early pregnancy loss, and placental abnormalities, are cited as examples. We argue the value of effect markers for detecting subclinical events that are critical for reproductive performance. Such studies can extend knowledge of the true frequency and determinates of reproductive disorders. A second portion of the paper deals with the role of effect markers in reducing disease misclassification. With a hypothetical early pregnancy study as a case in point, we illustrate the degree and direction of bias associated with several different protocols and encourage epidemiologists to weigh these quantitative considerations in deciding on study design. Finally, we discuss uses of biological markers to explore mechanisms, drawing on experience in an ongoing reproductive study that is testing a hypothetical pathway from maternal psychosocial stress to reduced fetal growth using urine catecholamine levels as a physiological marker of exposure and placental vascular abnormalities as a marker of effect.
M C Hatch; G Friedman-Jimenez
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental health perspectives     Volume:  90     ISSN:  0091-6765     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Health Perspect.     Publication Date:  1991 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1991-07-25     Completed Date:  1991-07-25     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330411     Medline TA:  Environ Health Perspect     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  255-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers
Environmental Exposure*
Menstruation Disturbances / chemically induced
Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology
Reproduction / drug effects*
Semen / drug effects
Grant Support
5T32-CA 09529/CA/NCI NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Environ Health Perspect
ISSN: 0091-6765
Article Information
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Print publication date: Month: 1 Year: 1991
Volume: 90First Page: 255 Last Page: 259
ID: 1519471
PubMed Id: 2050069

Using reproductive effect markers to observe subclinical events, reduce misclassification, and explore mechanism.
M C Hatch
G Friedman-Jimenez
Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032.

Article Categories:
  • Research Article

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