Document Detail

Usefulness of gastric intramucosal pH for monitoring hemodynamic complications in critically ill children.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9470084     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of gastric intramucosal pH for the evaluation of tissue perfusion and prediction of hemodynamic complications in critically ill children. DESIGN: Open prospective study without controls. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care university pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty critically ill children (16 boys and 14 girls), age range: 3 months-12 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: A tonometry catheter was placed in the stomach of all patients on admission to the pediatric ICU. Simultaneous tonometry and arterial gas measurements were made on admittance and every 6-12 h throughout the study; a total of 202 measurements were made. The catheter was removed after extubation and/or when the patient was hemodynamically stable. Intramucosal pH was calculated using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation based on the pCO2 of the tonometer and arterial bicarbonate. Intramucosal pH values between 7.30 and 7.45 were considered to be normal. The patient's condition was analyzed using the Pediatric Risk Mortality Score (PRISM). The relations between intramucosal pH and the presence of major hemodynamic complications (cardiopulmonary arrest, shock), minor hemodynamic complications (hypotension, hypovolemia or arrhythmia), death, PRISM score and the duration of the stay in the pediatric ICU were analyzed. Intramucosal pH on admission was 7.48 +/- 0.15 on average (range 7.04-7.68). Five patients (16%) had an intramucosal pH lower than 7.30 on admission; these patients did not have a higher incidence of hemodynamic complications. The 16 patients (53%) who had an intramucosal pH of less than 7.30 at some time during the course of their disease had more hemodynamic complications than the patients who did not have pH lower than 7.30 (p < 0.0001). Every case of cardiopulmonary arrest and shock was related to intramucosal pH of less than 7.30. Patients with major complications (cardiopulmonary arrest and shock) had lower intramucosal pHs than those with minor hemodynamic complications (p = 0.03); similarly, they had low intramucosal pH readings more often than those with minor complications (p = 0.0032). Intramucosal pH values less than 7.30 had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 98% as a predictor of hemodynamic complications. There was no relation between intramucosal pH lower than 7.30 and either PRISM or the duration of the stay in the pediatric ICU. Patients with intramucosal pH less than 7.20 had a higher PRISM than the patients who did not have pH lower than 7.20 (p < 0.05). A patient who died during the study due to cardiopulmonary arrest had prior intramucosal pH measurements of 7.23 and 7.10, and three patients died of late complications after the end of the study. Hemodynamic complications were not detected with arterial pH. Gap pH (arterial pH-intramucosal pH) and standard pH measurements yielded the same results as gastric intramucosal pH. CONCLUSION: Intramucosal pH could provide a useful early indication of hemodynamic complications in critically ill children.
C Calvo; F Ruza; J López-Herce; P Dorao; N Arribas; F Alvarado
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Intensive care medicine     Volume:  23     ISSN:  0342-4642     ISO Abbreviation:  Intensive Care Med     Publication Date:  1997 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-03-24     Completed Date:  1998-03-24     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7704851     Medline TA:  Intensive Care Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1268-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Pediatric Intensive Care Service, La Paz Children's Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Acid-Base Equilibrium*
Child, Preschool
Critical Care / methods*
Critical Illness*
Gastric Mucosa / metabolism*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
Shock / physiopathology*

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