Document Detail

Urinary metabolites of workers exposed to nitrotoluenes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16097390     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Nitrotoluenes are important intermediates in the chemical industry. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (26DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT) and 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) are carcinogenic in animals and possibly carcinogenic in humans. Thus, it is important to develop methods to biomonitor workers exposed to such chemicals. The authors have monitored the air and urine metabolite levels for a group of workers in China exposed to 24DNT, 26DNT, 2NT and 4-nitrotoluene (4NT). The metabolites 2,4-dinitrobenzylalcohol (24DNBAlc), 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoic acid (2A4NBA), 4-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid (4A2NBA) and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid (24DNBA) resulting from exposure to 24DNT were found in 89, 88, 91 and 78% of the exposed workers, respectively. The metabolites 2,6-dinitrobenzylalcohol (26DNBAlc) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid resulting from 26DNT exposure were found in 99 and 86% of the exposed workers, respectively. Quantitatively, 2A4NBA, 4A2NBA and 26DNBAlc were the major metabolites. The nitrobenzoic acids were the major metabolites resulting from exposure to 2NT and 4NT and were present in 96 and 73% of the exposed workers, respectively. Air concentrations of DNT and 2NT did not correlate with the levels of metabolites in the urine. In conclusion, the dinitrobenzyl alcohols and aminonitrobenzoic acids determined in the urine provided a good marker for recently absorbed dose and were intrinsically related to the bioactivation and detoxification pathways of DNT. Air measurements were not a good measure to predict internal exposure.
C R Jones; O Sepai; Y Y Liu; H Yan; G Sabbioni
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals     Volume:  10     ISSN:  1354-750X     ISO Abbreviation:  Biomarkers     Publication Date:    2005 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-08-15     Completed Date:  2005-08-26     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9606000     Medline TA:  Biomarkers     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  10-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Toxicology, Airolo, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Air / analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational / urine*
Benzoic Acids / metabolism,  urine
Biological Markers
Carcinogens / metabolism
Chemical Industry
Dinitrobenzenes / urine*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Glucuronidase / metabolism
Health Status Indicators
Occupational Exposure*
Toluene / analogs & derivatives*,  urine
Trinitrotoluene / urine*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Benzoic Acids; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Carcinogens; 0/Dinitrobenzenes; 108-88-3/Toluene; 118-96-7/Trinitrotoluene; 121-14-2/2,4-dinitrotoluene; 99-08-1/3-nitrotoluene; EC

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