Document Detail

Urinary excretion of cadmium among Torres Strait Islanders (Australia) at risk of elevated dietary exposure through traditional foods.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16912696     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening programs in 1996 in two communities with varying dugong and turtle catch statistics. Statistical analysis was performed to identify links between cadmium levels and demographic and background health information. Geometric mean cadmium level among the sample group was 0.83 mug/g creatinine with 12% containing over 2 microg/g creatinine. Cadmium level was most strongly associated with age (46% of variation), followed by sex (females >males, 7%) and current smoking status (smokers >non-smokers, 4.7%). Adjusting model conditions suggested further positive associations between cadmium level and diabetes (p=0.05) and residence in the predicted higher exposure community (p=0.07). Positive correlations between cadmium and body fat in bivariate analysis were eliminated by control for age and sex. This study found only suggestive differences in cadmium levels between two communities with predicted variation in exposure from traditional foods. However, the data indicate that factors linked with higher cadmium accumulation overlap with those of renal disease risk (i.e. older, females, smokers, diabetes) and suggest that levels may be sufficient to contribute to renal pathology. More direct assessment of exposure and health risks of cadmium to Torres Strait Islanders is needed given the disproportionate level of diet-related disease and the cultural importance of dugong and turtle. This study highlights the need to consider social and cultural variation in exposure and to define "safe" cadmium levels during diabetes given its rising global prevalence.
Melissa Haswell-Elkins; Paula Imray; Soisungwan Satarug; Michael R Moore; Kerin O'dea
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2006-08-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology     Volume:  17     ISSN:  1559-0631     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2007 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-07-12     Completed Date:  2008-01-31     Revised Date:  2009-11-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262796     Medline TA:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  372-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
North Queensland Health Equalities Promotion Unit, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Cadmium / adverse effects,  analysis,  chemistry,  urine*
Cadmium Poisoning / etiology,  urine*
Creatinine / metabolism
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
Food Contamination
Kidney Diseases / chemically induced,  urine
Middle Aged
Risk Factors
Seafood / analysis
Smoking / urine
Reg. No./Substance:
60-27-5/Creatinine; 7440-43-9/Cadmium

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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