Document Detail

Upper reference limits for biomarkers of exposure to aromatic diisocyanates.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15995877     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of 2,4-toluenediamine, 2,6-toluenediamine, 1,5-naphthtalenediamine and 4,4'-methylenediphenyldianiline in hydrolyzed urine and plasma for occupationally unexposed workers and to calculate upper reference limits (URLs). These analytes are biomarkers of exposure to 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI), 1,5-naphtalene diisocyanate (NDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), respectively. METHODS: The biomarker levels were determined in urinary and plasma samples obtained from 121 occupationally unexposed workers. Based on these biomarkers levels and the biomarker levels in an occupationally exposed group of workers, URLs were calculated. The method used for these calculations was based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve method technique, and the URLs were set at the optimum of sum of sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The URLs for the different diisocyanates were calculated to be in the range of 0.1-0.5 microg/L. Occupationally unexposed workers had detectable biomarker levels of the diisocyanates investigated. Especially abundant was the biomarkers of MDI which were found in 97% of both urinary and plasma samples. For the other biomarkers, 0-15% of the unexposed workers had detectable levels. The detected levels were mostly close to the limit of detection (LOD), but urinary levels of biomarkers of MDI up to 60 times the LOD were found. The sensitivities and specificities for classification of the workers as occupationally exposed or not, were in the range of 88-100% and 97-100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The URLs were calculated that may be applicable when screening for occupational exposure. A worker with a biomarker level above the URL will be classified as occupationally exposed. Biomarkers of aromatic diisocyanates, especially biomarkers of MDI, were present among occupationally unexposed workers, but the source and nature of the exposure is unknown.
Carl Johan Sennbro; Margareta Littorin; Håkan Tinnerberg; Bo A G Jönsson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2005-07-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  International archives of occupational and environmental health     Volume:  78     ISSN:  0340-0131     ISO Abbreviation:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Publication Date:  2005 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-08-11     Completed Date:  2005-11-29     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7512134     Medline TA:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  541-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, 221 85 Lund, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Isocyanates / blood*,  urine*
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure*
Reference Values
Sensitivity and Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:

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