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Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: The Oft-forgotten Cousin of Venous Thromboembolic Disease.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21271312     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) accounts for between 4% and 10% of all deep venous thromboses, and may be due to primary or secondary causes. The incidence of UEDVT is increasing, partly due to the exponential growth in the use of central venous catheters and the increasing placement of permanent cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator devices. UEDVT not only compromises future vascular access but results in significant morbidity and mortality, with symptomatic pulmonary embolus occurring in approximately 12%, post-thrombotic syndrome in 13%, and mortality ranging from 15-50%. Treatment of UEDVT depends on the underlying cause, primary or secondary. In this review, we will evaluate the management options and present a proposed treatment algorithm for primary UEDVT, involving catheter-directed thrombolysis, selective use of mechanical thrombectomy, anticoagulation and antithrombotic therapy, expeditious early first rib resection to decompress the thoracic outlet, and the role of adjunctive endovascular balloon angioplasty and stenting in improving axillo-subclavian vein patency. With regard to secondary UEDVT, we will present a treatment algorithm for managing central venous catheter (CVC) thrombosis; review the options for antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapy; and discuss the role of endovascular therapy. Finally, we will review the data supporting the growing role of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or venoplasty and endovascular stenting as the modality of choice in managing SVC obstruction, whether due to benign or malignant causes, and provide a brief description of the role, benefits and potential complications of SVC filter placement.
Ronan Margey; Robert M Schainfeld
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine     Volume:  13     ISSN:  1534-3189     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-29     Completed Date:  2011-07-14     Revised Date:  2013-07-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815942     Medline TA:  Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  146-58     Citation Subset:  -    
Section of Vascular Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Gray-Bigelow 800, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
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