Document Detail

Unexpected phenotypes of malformations induced in Xenopus tropicalis embryos by combined exposure to triphenyltin and 9-cis-retinoic acid.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25079278     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Xenopus tropicalis embryos were exposed for 48 hr to the mixtures of 5 μg Sn/L triphenyltin (TPT), which is a well-known endocrine disruptor, and 0.25-5 μg/L 9-cis retinoic acid (9c-RA), which is the natural ligand of retinoid X receptor. The phenotypes induced by combined exposure were more variable than those resulting from single exposure to either TPT or 9c-RA. The prominent phenotypes included underdeveloped head structures, abnormal eyes, narrow fins, enlarged proctodaeum, etc. Especially, combined exposure induced unexpected notochord malformations, which ranged from small swellings of the surface of the tails to the extension and extrusion of notochord out of the posterior tails. Compared with the 5 μg Sn/L TPT-treated group, the index of fin deficiency was not affected, and the index of axis deficiency was significantly increased with increasing RA concentrations in the mixtures. Our results suggest that combined exposure to TPT and 9c-RA induced not only more variable phenotypes of malformations than exposure to single compound but also some new and unexpected phenotypes.
Jingmin Zhu; Lin Yu; Lijiao Wu; Lingling Hu; Huahong Shi
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Publication Detail:
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental sciences (China)     Volume:  26     ISSN:  1001-0742     ISO Abbreviation:  J Environ Sci (China)     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-7-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100967627     Medline TA:  J Environ Sci (China)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  643-649     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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