Document Detail


Underwater movement times with ongoing visual control.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23005584     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Arm movements made in a water environment take longer to perform than in an air environment due to the drag forces experienced by the arm. Movement times for ballistic underwater movements have been accurately modelled by Hoffmann and Gan ( 1988 ). The present work models the movement time for movements that require ongoing visual control. In these movements, the 'distance-covering' phase is carried out at high speeds and will be affected by the fluid characteristics, while the 'homing-in' phase, where speeds are low, is less affected. An experiment is reported that models these effects and which indicates that a ballistic component needs to be added to the standard Fitts model in order to account for the drag forces in the distance-covering phase of the movement. Practitioner Summary: Many tasks, such as maintenance and salvage work, require work to be done underwater. Times for performing underwater tasks are generally longer than on land. This article is one step in modelling the difference in task times for land and underwater movements.
Authors:
Errol R Hoffmann; Alan H S Chan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-9-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Ergonomics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1366-5847     ISO Abbreviation:  Ergonomics     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-9-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0373220     Medline TA:  Ergonomics     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
a Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management , City University of Hong Kong , Kowloon Tong , Hong Kong.
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