Document Detail

Understanding the availability, prevalence of use, desired effects, acute toxicity and dependence potential of the novel opioid MT-45.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25430506     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Introduction. 1-Cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine (MT-45) is a novel psychoactive substance available over the Internet. MT-45 is an opioid-like compound. This study provides an overview of availability, use and desired and unwanted effects of MT-45 through triangulation of available data sources. Methods. Searches of the published scientific literature and 'grey' information sources, using the keywords 'MT 45', 'MT-45' and '1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine' were undertaken in June 2014 to identify information on the availability, prevalence of use and desired/unwanted effects of MT-45. In addition an Internet snapshot survey in English was undertaken in May 2014 to determine the availability and cost of MT-45. Results. In June 2014 we were unable to identify any studies reporting the prevalence of use of MT-45. The Internet snapshot study identified 17 Internet sites selling MT-45. Information on price was available from 9 sites, with the mean price of MT-45 decreased with increasing purchase amounts from US$57.60 ± 19.37 per gram for a 1-g purchase to US$3.36 ± 1.83 per gram for a 1-kg purchase. We identified one published scientific paper reporting on the acute harms in nine cases of analytically confirmed MT-45 toxicity, one US government report relating to two MT-45-related deaths and 20 user reports on Internet discussion forums relating to the use of MT-45. All these suggest that the desired and unwanted effects of MT-45 are similar to those seen with other opioids, and that the opioid-like unwanted effects may be reversed with the opioid antagonist naloxone. There were user reports of MT-45 being used in heroin withdrawal and of 'withdrawal symptoms' after use, suggesting that long-term use may be associated with dependency as seen with other opioids. Conclusions. Combining published scientific literature and 'grey' information sources, we have demonstrated that MT-45 has opioid-like desired and unwanted effects. Whilst the information is limited at the moment, it has the potential to have similar dependence liability to other opioids.
S Siddiqi; C H Verney; P I Dargan; D M Wood
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1556-9519     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Toxicol (Phila)     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-11-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101241654     Medline TA:  Clin Toxicol (Phila)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-6     Citation Subset:  -    
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