Document Detail

Understanding potential exposure sources of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in the workplace.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20974675     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental data, and modeling results were used to ascertain the most probable workplace exposure sources and transport mechanisms for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its ammonium salt (APFO). PFOA is biopersistent and its measurement in the blood has been used to assess human exposure since it integrates exposure from all routes of entry. Monitoring suggests that inhalation of airborne material may be an important exposure route. Transport studies indicated that, under low pH conditions, PFOA, the undissociated (acid) species, actively partitions from water into air. In addition, solid-phase PFOA and APFO may also sublime into the air. Modeling studies determined that contributions from surface sublimation and loss from low pH aqueous solutions can be significant potential sources of workplace exposure. These findings suggest that keeping surfaces clean, preventing accumulation of material in unventilated areas, removing solids from waste trenches and sumps, and maintaining neutral pH in sumps can lower workplace exposures.
Mary A Kaiser; Barbara J Dawson; Catherine A Barton; Miguel A Botelho
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-10-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Annals of occupational hygiene     Volume:  54     ISSN:  1475-3162     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann Occup Hyg     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-18     Completed Date:  2011-12-06     Revised Date:  2013-07-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0203526     Medline TA:  Ann Occup Hyg     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  915-22     Citation Subset:  IM    
DuPont Company, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, Wilmington, DE 19880, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis,  chemistry*
Caprylates / analysis,  chemistry
Carboxylic Acids / analysis,  chemistry*
Chemical Industry / statistics & numerical data
Decontamination / methods
Environmental Monitoring
Fluorocarbons / analysis,  chemistry*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Models, Chemical
Occupational Exposure / prevention & control*,  statistics & numerical data
Phase Transition
Skin Absorption
Surface-Active Agents / chemistry
Vapor Pressure
Workplace / statistics & numerical data*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Caprylates; 0/Carboxylic Acids; 0/Fluorocarbons; 0/Surface-Active Agents; 335-67-1/perfluorooctanoic acid

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