Document Detail

Ultrasound-guided retrobulbar nerve block in horses: a cadaveric study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23057999     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Objective  To develop an ultrasound-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve block in horses, and to compare the distribution of three different volumes of injected contrast medium (CM) (4, 8 and 12 mL), with the hypothesis that successful placement of the needle within the retractor bulbi muscle cone would lead to the most effective dispersal of CM towards the nerves leaving the orbital fissure. Study design  Prospective experimental cadaver study. Animals  Twenty equine cadavers. Methods  Ultrasound-guided retrobulbar injections were performed in 40 cadaver orbits. Ultrasound visualization of needle placement within the retractor bulbi muscle cone and spread of injected CM towards the orbital fissure were scored. Needle position and destination of CM were then assessed using computerized tomography (CT), and comparisons performed between ultrasonographic visualization of orbital structures and success rate of injections (intraconal needle placement, CM reaching the orbital fissure). Results  Higher scores for ultrasound visualization resulted in a higher success rate for intraconal CM injection, as documented on the CT images. Successful intraconal placement of the needle (22/34 orbits) resulted in CM always reaching the orbital fissure. CM also reached the orbital fissure in six orbits where needle placement was extraconal. With 4, 8 and 12 mL CM, the orbital fissure was reached in 16/34, 23/34 and 28/34 injections, respectively. Conclusion and clinical relevance  The present study demonstrates the use of ultrasound for visualization of anatomical structures and needle placement during retrobulbar injections in equine orbits. However, this approach needs to be repeated in controlled clinical trials to assess practicability and effectiveness in clinical practice.
Ute Morath; Cédric Luyet; Claudia Spadavecchia; Michael H Stoffel; Garry M Hatch
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Anaesthesiology Division, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Therapy, Berne University Hospital, Inselspital, Berne, Switzerland Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
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