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Ulcerated and nonulcerated nontuberculous cutaneous mycobacterial granulomas in cats and dogs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23331691     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Background -  Mycobacterial granulomas of the skin and subcutis can be caused by one of a number of pathogens. This review concentrates on noncultivable species that cause diseases characterized by focal granuloma(s), namely leproid granuloma (in dogs) and feline leprosy (in cats). Clinically indistinguishable lesions can be caused by tuberculous organisms (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti) and members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Rapidly growing mycobacterial species that cause infection of the subcutaneous panniculus associated with draining tracts are not discussed. Disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is an important emerging differential diagnosis for ulcerated cutaneous nodules in certain localized regions. Clinical lesions -  Lesions comprise one or multiple nodules in the skin/subcutis. These are generally firm and well circumscribed, and typically become denuded of hair. They may or may not ulcerate, depending on the virulence of the causal organisms and the immune response of the host. Diagnosis -  The most inexpensive, noninvasive means of diagnosis is by submission of methanol-fixed, Romanowsky-stained smears to a Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory after detecting negatively stained or acid-fast bacilli on cytological smears. Scrapings of material from slides usually provide sufficient mycobacterial DNA to enable identification of the causal organism using sequence analysis of amplicons after PCR using specific mycobacterial primers. Therapy -  Therapy relies upon a combination of marginal resection of easily accessible lesions and treatment using two or three drugs effective against slowly growing mycobacteria, choosing amongst rifampicin, clarithromycin, clofazimine and pradofloxacin/moxifloxacin.
Authors:
Richard Malik; Bronwyn Smits; George Reppas; Caroline Laprie; Carolyn O'Brien; Janet Fyfe
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary dermatology     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1365-3164     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet. Dermatol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9426187     Medline TA:  Vet Dermatol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  146-e33     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD, Veterinary Dermatology.
Affiliation:
Centre for Veterinary Education, Conference Centre B22, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Gribbles Veterinary, 57 Sunshine Avenue, Hamilton, New Zealand Vetnostics, 60 Waterloo Road, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW, Australia Laboratoire Vet-Histo, 13008 Marseille, France Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
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