Document Detail

Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17138698     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The roles of two cytosolic maize glutamine synthetase isoenzymes (GS1), products of the Gln1-3 and Gln1-4 genes, were investigated by examining the impact of knockout mutations on kernel yield. In the gln1-3 and gln1-4 single mutants and the gln1-3 gln1-4 double mutant, GS mRNA expression was impaired, resulting in reduced GS1 protein and activity. The gln1-4 phenotype displayed reduced kernel size and gln1-3 reduced kernel number, with both phenotypes displayed in gln1-3 gln1-4. However, at maturity, shoot biomass production was not modified in either the single mutants or double mutants, suggesting a specific impact on grain production in both mutants. Asn increased in the leaves of the mutants during grain filling, indicating that it probably accumulates to circumvent ammonium buildup resulting from lower GS1 activity. Phloem sap analysis revealed that unlike Gln, Asn is not efficiently transported to developing kernels, apparently causing reduced kernel production. When Gln1-3 was overexpressed constitutively in leaves, kernel number increased by 30%, providing further evidence that GS1-3 plays a major role in kernel yield. Cytoimmunochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that GS1-3 is present in mesophyll cells, whereas GS1-4 is specifically localized in the bundle sheath cells. The two GS1 isoenzymes play nonredundant roles with respect to their tissue-specific localization.
Antoine Martin; Judy Lee; Thomas Kichey; Denise Gerentes; Michel Zivy; Christophe Tatout; Frédéric Dubois; Thierry Balliau; Benoît Valot; Marlène Davanture; Thérèse Tercé-Laforgue; Isabelle Quilleré; Marie Coque; André Gallais; María-Begoña Gonzalez-Moro; Linda Bethencourt; Dimah Z Habash; Peter J Lea; Alain Charcosset; Pascual Perez; Alain Murigneux; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Keith J Edwards; Bertrand Hirel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2006-11-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Plant cell     Volume:  18     ISSN:  1040-4651     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Cell     Publication Date:  2006 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-12-15     Completed Date:  2007-02-26     Revised Date:  2013-06-07    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9208688     Medline TA:  Plant Cell     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3252-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Unité de Nutrition Azotée des Plantes UR511, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-78026 Versailles Cedex, France.
Data Bank Information
Bank Name/Acc. No.:
GENBANK/X65928;  X65929
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acid Sequence
Base Sequence
Cereals / economics*,  enzymology*
Cytosol / enzymology*
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Genome, Plant / genetics
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / chemistry,  genetics,  isolation & purification,  metabolism*
Isoenzymes / chemistry,  genetics,  isolation & purification,  metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Mutation / genetics
Phloem / enzymology
Plant Leaves / cytology,  enzymology,  ultrastructure
Plant Roots / cytology,  enzymology
Plant Shoots / enzymology
Protein Subunits / chemistry,  genetics,  isolation & purification,  metabolism
Protein Transport
RNA, Messenger / genetics,  metabolism
Transcription, Genetic
Xylem / enzymology
Zea mays / cytology,  enzymology*,  ultrastructure
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Isoenzymes; 0/Protein Subunits; 0/RNA, Messenger; EC Ligase

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