Document Detail

Two-agent analgesia versus acetaminophen in children having bilateral myringotomies and tubes surgery.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20964769     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence of emergence agitation (EA) can be reduced by adding an additional, faster onset, non-IV analgesic, intranasal fentanyl or intramuscular (im) ketorolac to rectal acetaminophen.
AIM: To compare the incidence of EA after analgesia with two agents vs acetaminophen alone in pediatric patients after bilateral myringotomy procedures (BM&T).
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia for BM&T is usually performed with volatile anesthetics as a single agent without securing intravenous access. The anesthetic agent most commonly used is sevoflurane; however, EA has been reported in up to 67% of patients. Emergence agitation is distressing for parents, can impair the ability of nursing staff to adequately monitor the child, and can result in a child injuring him/herself if it is severe.
METHODS/MATERIALS: A standardized anesthetic was used with oral midazolam premedication and sevoflurane for induction, and maintenance of anesthesia. All patients received 40 mg·kg(-1) rectal acetaminophen, group 1 received acetaminophen alone, group 2 received acetaminophen and 1 mcg·kg(-1) of intranasal fentanyl, and group 3 received acetaminophen and 1 mg·kg(-1) of intramuscular ketorolac. Incidence of EA was compared using chi-square test between the acetaminophen group alone vs the two-agent analgesia groups combined.
RESULTS:   There were no differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups for the incidence of EA at any time point during recovery from anesthesia nor were there any significant differences in pain scores or side effects. No significant side effects because of the administration of a second analgesic agent were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that two-agent analgesia is not superior to acetaminophen alone for decreasing the incidence of EA after inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane for BM&T surgery. Our overall incidence of EA was low compared to previous studies, which could potentially have decreased our ability to detect differences between groups.
Sally Rampersad; Nathalia Jimenez; Heidi Bradford; Kristy Seidel; Anne Lynn
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Paediatric anaesthesia     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1460-9592     ISO Abbreviation:  Paediatr Anaesth     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-10-22     Completed Date:  2011-02-17     Revised Date:  2014-07-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9206575     Medline TA:  Paediatr Anaesth     Country:  France    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1028-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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MeSH Terms
Acetaminophen / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Administration, Intranasal
Administration, Rectal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Anesthesia, General
Anesthetics, Inhalation
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Child, Preschool
Double-Blind Method
Drug Therapy, Combination
Fentanyl / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Injections, Intramuscular
Ketorolac Tromethamine / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Methyl Ethers
Middle Ear Ventilation / methods*
Pain Measurement / drug effects
Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*
Psychomotor Agitation / prevention & control*,  psychology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0/Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0/Methyl Ethers; 28523-86-6/sevoflurane; 362O9ITL9D/Acetaminophen; 4EVE5946BQ/Ketorolac Tromethamine; UF599785JZ/Fentanyl
Comment In:
Paediatr Anaesth. 2011 Sep;21(9):987   [PMID:  21793983 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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