Document Detail

Trends in hypertension epidemiology in India.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14730320     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Cardiovascular diseases caused 2.3 million deaths in India in the year 1990; this is projected to double by the year 2020. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Indian urban population studies in the mid-1950s used older WHO guidelines for diagnosis (BP > or =160 and/or 95 mmHg) and reported hypertension prevalence of 1.2-4.0%. Subsequent studies report steadily increasing prevalence from 5% in 1960s to 12-15% in 1990s. Hypertension prevalence is lower in the rural Indian population, although there has been a steady increase over time here as well. Recent studies using revised criteria (BP > or =140 and/or 90 mmHg) have shown a high prevalence of hypertension among urban adults: men 30%, women 33% in Jaipur (1995), men 44%, women 45% in Mumbai (1999), men 31%, women 36% in Thiruvananthapuram (2000), 14% in Chennai (2001), and men 36%, women 37% in Jaipur (2002). Among the rural populations, hypertension prevalence is men 24%, women 17% in Rajasthan (1994). Hypertension diagnosed by multiple examinations has been reported in 27% male and 28% female executives in Mumbai (2000) and 4.5% rural subjects in Haryana (1999). There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension in India. The nature of genetic contribution and gene-environment interaction in accelerating the hypertension epidemic in India needs more studies. Pooling of epidemiological studies shows that hypertension is present in 25% urban and 10% rural subjects in India. At an underestimate, there are 31.5 million hypertensives in rural and 34 million in urban populations. A total of 70% of these would be Stage I hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg). Recent reports show that borderline hypertension (systolic BP 130-139 and/or diastolic BP 85-89 mmHg) and Stage I hypertension carry a significant cardiovascular risk and there is a need to reduce this blood pressure. Population-based cost-effective hypertension control strategies should be developed.
R Gupta
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of human hypertension     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0950-9240     ISO Abbreviation:  J Hum Hypertens     Publication Date:  2004 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-01-19     Completed Date:  2004-05-13     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8811625     Medline TA:  J Hum Hypertens     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  73-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Medicine, Monilek Hospital and Research Centre, Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur, India.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Pressure
Hypertension / epidemiology*
India / epidemiology
Risk Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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