Document Detail

Treatment of neuromyelitis optica: an evidence based review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22218475     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, usually with a relapsing course. Aquaporin-4 antibody is positive in a high percentage of NMO patients and it is directed against this water channel richly expressed on foot processes of astrocytes. Due to the severity of NMO attacks and the high risk for disability, treatment should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed. There is increasing evidence that NMO patients respond differently from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and, therefore, treatments for MS may not be suitable for NMO. Acute NMO attacks usually are treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroid pulse and plasmapheresis. Maintenance therapy is also required to avoid further attacks and it is based on low-dose oral corticosteroids and non-specific immunosuppressant drugs, like azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. New therapy strategies using monoclonal antibodies like rituximab have been tested in NMO, with positive results in open label studies. However, there is no controlled randomized trial to confirm the safety and efficacy for the drugs currently used in NMO.
Douglas Sato; Dagoberto Callegaro; Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto; Kazuo Fujihara;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria     Volume:  70     ISSN:  1678-4227     ISO Abbreviation:  Arq Neuropsiquiatr     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-05     Completed Date:  2012-11-30     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0125444     Medline TA:  Arq Neuropsiquiatr     Country:  Brazil    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  59-66     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neurology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / therapeutic use
Aquaporin 4 / therapeutic use
Autoantibodies / therapeutic use
Azathioprine / therapeutic use
Evidence-Based Medicine
Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives,  therapeutic use
Neuromyelitis Optica / drug therapy*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0/Aquaporin 4; 0/Autoantibodies; 0/Immunosuppressive Agents; 0/rituximab; 24280-93-1/Mycophenolic Acid; 446-86-6/Azathioprine; 9242ECW6R0/mycophenolate mofetil

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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