Document Detail


Transport limitation of chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in alginate beads.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18623558     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
An artificial biofilm system consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in alginate and agarose beads was used to demonstrate transport limitation of the rate of disinfection of entrapped bacteria by chlorine. Alginate gel beads with or without entrapped bacteria consumed chlorine. The specific rate of chlorine consumption increased with increasing cell loading in the gel beads and decreased with increasing bead radius. The value of an observable modulus comparing the rates of reaction and diffusion ranged from less than 0.1 to 8 depending on the bead radius and cell density. The observable modulus was largest for large (3-mm-diameter) beads with high cell loading (1.8 x 10(9) cfu/cm(3)) and smallest for small beads (0.5 mm diameter) with no cells added. A chlorine microelectrode was used to measure chlorine concentration profiles in agarose beads (3.0 mm diameter). Chlorine fully penetrated cell-free agarose beads rapidly; the concentration of chlorine at the bead center reached 50% of the bulk concentration within approximately 10 min after immersion in chlorine solution. When alginate and bacteria were incorporated into an agarose bead, pronounced chlorine concentration gradients persisted within the gel bead. Chlorine did gradually penetrate the bead, but at a greatly retarded rate; the time to reach 50% of the bulk concentration at the bead center was approximately 46 h. The overall rate of disinfection of entrapped bacteria was strongly dependent on cell density and bead radius. Small beads with low initial cell loading (0.5 mm diameter, 1.1 x 10(7) cfu/cm(3)) experienced rapid killing; viable cells could not be detected (<1.6 x 10(5) cfu/cm(3)) after 15 min of treatment in 2.5 mg/L chlorine. In contrast, the number of viable cells in larger beads with a higher initial cell density (3.0 mm diameter, 2.2 x 10(9) cfu/cm(3)) decreased only about 20% after 6 h of treatment in the same solution. Spatially nonuniform killing of bacteria within the beads was demonstrated by measuring the transient release of viable cells during dissolution of the beads. Bacteria were killed preferentially near the bead surface. Experimental results were consistent with transport limitation of the penetration of chlorine into the artificial biofilm arising from a reaction-diffusion interaction. The methods reported here provide tools for diagnosing the mechanism of biofilm resistance to reactive antimicrobial agents in such applications as the treatment of drinking and cooling waters.
Authors:
X Xu; P S Stewart; X Chen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biotechnology and bioengineering     Volume:  49     ISSN:  0006-3592     ISO Abbreviation:  Biotechnol. Bioeng.     Publication Date:  1996 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-14     Completed Date:  2009-12-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7502021     Medline TA:  Biotechnol Bioeng     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  93-100     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.
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