Document Detail

Transmission and control of vivax malaria in Afghan refugee settlements in Pakistan.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9231188     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Regular biting collections were conducted in 1993-1994 to investigate seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of anophelines in Afghan refugee villages in north-western Pakistan. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to test heads-plus-thoraces for the presence of malaria sporozoites. Anophelines giving positive results for Plasmodium vivax were captured in every month except January. Nine species were positive. Biting rates showed a marked increase in May, after the spring rains, and thus spring transmission of vivax malaria seems certain. However, transmission of vivax malaria reached its peak only after the monsoon in July. To determine the optimal time to control vivax malaria by indoor spraying with residual insecticide, spray campaigns were conducted in either spring or summer in 14 refugee villages. Villages sprayed in July 1994 showed a mean reduction in annual incidence of 62% (95% confidence interval [CI] +/-6%) relative to the previous year, whereas villages sprayed in April 1994 showed only a 15% reduction (95% CI +/- 32%). Parasite prevalence surveys conducted in April and October 1994 confirmed the greater efficacy of spray campaigns waged in July. The insecticide malathion proved as effective as the pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin, even though several species of anopheline were resistant to malathion.
M Rowland; S Hewitt; N Durrani; N Bano; R Wirtz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Volume:  91     ISSN:  0035-9203     ISO Abbreviation:  Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.     Publication Date:    1997 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-08-12     Completed Date:  1997-08-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506129     Medline TA:  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  252-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
HealthNet International, Peshawar, Pakistan.
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MeSH Terms
Afghanistan / ethnology
Malaria, Falciparum / epidemiology
Malaria, Vivax / epidemiology,  prevention & control,  transmission*
Mosquito Control*
Pakistan / epidemiology
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Insecticides; 0/Nitriles; 0/Pyrethrins; 121-75-5/Malathion; 68085-85-8/cyhalothrin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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