Document Detail

Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in pasteurized milk treated with carbon dioxide.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10456739     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The addition of carbon dioxide to milk at levels of <20 mM inhibits the growth of selected spoilage organisms and extends refrigerated shelf life. Our objective was to determine if the addition of CO2 influenced the risk of botulism from milk. Carbon dioxide was added to pasteurized 2% fat milk at approximately 0, 9.1, or 18.2 mM using a commercial gas-injection system. The milk was inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of proteolytic and nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum spore strains to yield 10(1) to 10(2) spores/ml. Milk was stored at 6.1 or 21 degrees C for 60 or 6 days, respectively, in sealed glass jars or high-density polyethylene plastic bottles. Milk stored at 21 degrees C curdled and exhibited a yogurt-like odor at 2 days and was putrid at 4 days. Botulinal toxin was detected in 9.1 mM CO2 milk at 4 days and in all treatments after 6 days of storage at 21 degrees C. All toxic samples were grossly spoiled based on sensory evaluation at the time toxin was detected. Although botulinal toxin appeared earlier in milk treated with 9.1 mM CO2 compared to both the 18.2 mM and untreated milk, gross spoilage would act as a deterrent to consumption of toxic milk. No botulinal toxin was detected in any treatment stored at 6.1 degrees C for 60 days. At 6.1 degrees C, the standard plate counts (SPCs) were generally lower in the CO2-treated samples than in controls, with 18.2 mM CO2 milk having the lowest SPC. These data indicate that the low-level addition of CO2 retards spoilage of pasteurized milk at refrigeration temperatures and does not increase the risk of botulism from treated milk stored at refrigeration or abuse temperatures.
K A Glass; K M Kaufman; A L Smith; E A Johnson; J H Chen; J Hotchkiss
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of food protection     Volume:  62     ISSN:  0362-028X     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Food Prot.     Publication Date:  1999 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-10-28     Completed Date:  1999-10-28     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7703944     Medline TA:  J Food Prot     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  872-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Food Research Institute, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Botulinum Toxins / biosynthesis*
Carbon Dioxide / pharmacology*
Clostridium botulinum / metabolism*
Disinfection / methods*
Food Handling
Food Microbiology
Hot Temperature
Milk / microbiology*
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Botulinum Toxins; 124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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