Document Detail


Toxicology of micronutrients: adverse effects and uncertainty.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16424134     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The establishment of safe upper intake levels for micronutrients must consider the intake-response relations for both deficiency and toxicity. Limited data are available on the toxicities of most micronutrients, and few studies that meet the criteria considered essential for the risk assessment of other chemicals in food, such as pesticides and food additives, have been performed. In some cases, the application of large uncertainty factors, which are used to establish the amount of a chemical that would be safe for daily intake throughout life, could result in nutritionally inadequate intakes of micronutrients. As a consequence, lower than normal uncertainty factors have been applied to determine safe or tolerable intakes of many micronutrients. There is no clear scientific rationale, on the basis of the metabolism and elimination of micronutrients or the nature of the adverse effects reported for high intakes, for the use of reduced uncertainty factors for micronutrient toxicity. A review of recent evaluations of selected vitamins and minerals shows little consistency in the application of uncertainty factors by different advisory groups, such as the Institute of Medicine in the United States and the Scientific Committee on Foods in the European Union. It is apparent that, in some cases, the uncertainty factor applied was selected largely to give a result that is compatible with nutritional requirements; therefore, the uncertainty factor represented part of risk management rather than hazard characterization. The usual risk assessment procedures for chemicals in food should be revised for micronutrients, so that the risks associated with intakes that are too low and too high are considered equally as part of a risk-benefit analysis.
Authors:
A G Renwick
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  136     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2006 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-01-20     Completed Date:  2006-03-29     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  493S-501S     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7PX, United Kingdom. a.g.renwick@soton.ac.uk
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Humans
Micronutrients / adverse effects*,  toxicity
Minerals / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Risk
Uncertainty*
Vitamins / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Micronutrients; 0/Minerals; 0/Vitamins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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