Document Detail

Toxicoepidemiology in Zimbabwe: pesticide poisoning admissions to major hospitals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16496495     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a well-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality but is not well described in developing countries. We describe the toxicoepidemiology of APP in Zimbabwe. METHODS: All cases of APP admitted to eight major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe from January 1998 to December 1999 (inclusive) were identified using ICD-9 codes and ward registers and relevant information recorded on a standard data collection sheet. RESULTS: There were a total of 914 single pesticide exposures. Almost half (49.1%) resulted from oral exposure to rodenticides, 42.2% from anticholinesterase-type pesticides (AChTP), mostly organophosphates (OP) that were responsible for over 90% of admissions from AChTP. Accidental and deliberate self-poisoning (27.1% and 58.6%, respectively) accounted for most cases with only eight homicides. The case fatality rate (CFR) in deaths/100 admissions was 6.8 [62 deaths; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.2-8.6] and was significantly higher in males (9.4) than females (4.1) (CI for difference in proportions; 2.0-8.5). In addition, the CFR for deliberate self-poisoning (DSP), 6.5 deaths/100 admissions, was also significantly higher than that for accidental poisoning (0.8 deaths/100 admissions) (CI for difference in proportions 3.2-7.9). Organophosphates were implicated in 70.9% of all fatalities, with over 20% resulting from oral exposure to rat poison (RP). CONCLUSION: Organophosphates and rat poison (RP) are the leading causes of APP admissions to major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe, with most of the admissions being the result of deliberate self-poisoning. Greater control in the sale and use of these products could help prevent significant morbidity and mortality.
Dexter Tagwireyi; Douglas E Ball; Charles F B Nhachi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)     Volume:  44     ISSN:  1556-3650     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Toxicol (Phila)     Publication Date:  2006  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-02-24     Completed Date:  2006-03-14     Revised Date:  2009-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101241654     Medline TA:  Clin Toxicol (Phila)     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  59-66     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Drug and Toxicology Information Service, Department of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
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MeSH Terms
Acute Disease
Child, Preschool
Data Collection
Hospitals, Public
Length of Stay
Middle Aged
Pesticides / poisoning*
Poisoning / mortality,  physiopathology
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Zimbabwe / epidemiology
Reg. No./Substance:

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