Document Detail

Toxicity of synthetic naphthenic acids and mixtures of these to fish liver cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22462822     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Environmental concerns have been raised over the toxicity of crude naphthenic acids (NA) originating from oil exploration activities offshore, oil sands exploitation onshore, and use of refined NA as wood preservatives, tire additives, and in various other applications. The NA exist in highly complex mixtures, so the toxic effects of the individual acids are rarely known. The present study investigated the relationships between the chemical structures of a range of synthetic alicyclic and aromatic acids and their acute toxicities both as single chemicals and as complex mixtures in a primary culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. The combined toxicity of multicomponent mixtures of these NA was assessed using the concept of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) prediction. All of the acids tested were moderately toxic, with EC(50) values in the range 108-405 μM (24-89 mg L(-1)) and 188-656 μM (43-148 mg L(-1)) when assessed by effects on metabolic inhibition or loss of membrane integrity, respectively. Binary and 6-compound mixture of NA caused combined toxicity according to the concept of additivity, although slight deviations from additivity were observed at a few mixture concentrations. Single NA and mixtures of NA with similar structures to those tested herein probably contribute to the toxicity of complex natural mixtures of NA. Toxicity tests on three commercial NA mixtures showed that these exhibited highly variable toxicities themselves probably reflecting their chemical heterogeneity.
Knut Erik Tollefsen; Karina Petersen; Steven J Rowland
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-04-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  46     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-01     Completed Date:  2012-09-10     Revised Date:  2014-02-20    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5143-50     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 American Chemical Society
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MeSH Terms
Carboxylic Acids / toxicity*
Cells, Cultured
Hepatocytes / drug effects*
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Toxicity Tests
Grant Support
228149//European Research Council
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carboxylic Acids; 1338-24-5/naphthenic acid

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