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Toxicity of areca nut ingredients: Activation of CHK1/CHK2. induction of cell cycle arrest, and regulation of MMP-9 and TIMPs production in SAS epithelial cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22907745     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: There are 600 million betel quid chewers around the world. betel quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral cancer. Why betel quid components induce oral cancer is not clear. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of areca nut extract and arecoline (an areca nut alkaloid) to SAS oral epithelial cell line was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assays. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis was analyzed by propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. Chk1 and chk2 activation was analyzed by Pathscan phospho-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Areca nut extract (800 μg/mL) and arecoline (>0.4 mmol/L) caused cell death, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest of SAS cells. Areca nut extract and arecoline stimulated Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation in SAS cells. Areca nut extract stimulated cellular MMP-9 but suppressed TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 production. CONCLUSIONS: Areca nut components activate Chk1/Chk2, alter cell cycle regulation/apoptosis, MMP-9, and TIMPs production, contributing to the pathogenesis of oral carcinogenesis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.
Mei-Chi Chang; Chiu-Po Chan; Wei-Ting Wang; Bei-En Chang; Jang-Jaer Lee; Shuei-Kuen Tseng; Sin-Yuet Yeung; Liang-Jiunn Hahn; Jiiang-Huei Jeng
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Head & neck     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1097-0347     ISO Abbreviation:  Head Neck     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8902541     Medline TA:  Head Neck     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Biomedical Science Team, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
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