Document Detail

Towards understanding the evolutionary origins and early diversification of rearranging antigen receptors.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9914904     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The rearranging antigen binding receptors, immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chains and the four classes of T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) are found in all contemporary species of jawed vertebrates examined thus far. Ig genes have undergone marked changes in organization and mechanisms of diversification during vertebrate phylogeny; whereas TCR genes, which are found in species as phylogenetically removed as man and cartilaginous fishes (e.g. skate), are generally similar in terms of structure, diversification and, presumably, function. The patterns of Ig divergence in cartilaginous fish are informative as to both the potential for genetic variation and the mechanisms that bring about such change. No evidence has been found for homologs of either Ig, TCR, recombination activating gene (RAG)1 or RAG2 in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. Thus, a phylogenetic demarcation exists in terms of the presence and absence of the rearranging antigen binding receptor genes. It is presumed that the rearranging antigen binding receptors arose from a non-rearranging predecessor. The recent discovery of non-rearranging homologs of antigen binding receptor genes in several species offers insight into alternative forms of recognition, relationships between adaptive and innate mechanisms of immunity, and the origins of antigen recognition.
J P Rast; G W Litman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  166     ISSN:  0105-2896     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  1998 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-04-15     Completed Date:  1999-04-15     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  DENMARK    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  79-86     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular*
Gene Rearrangement
Receptors, Antigen / genetics*
Vertebrates / genetics
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Receptors, Antigen

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