Document Detail


Total radioactive residues and residues of [36Cl]chlorate in market size broilers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17571900     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The oral administration of chlorate salts reduces the numbers of Gram-negative pathogens in gastrointestinal tracts of live food animals. Although the efficacy of chlorate salts has been demonstrated repeatedly, the technology cannot be introduced into commercial settings without first demonstrating that chlorate residues, and metabolites of chlorate remaining in edible tissues, represent a negligible risk to consumers. Typically, a first step in this risk assessment is to quantify the parent compound and to identify metabolites remaining in edible tissues of animals treated with the experimental compound. The objectives of this study were to determine the pathway(s) of chlorate metabolism in market broilers and to determine the magnitude of chlorate residues remaining in edible tissues. To this end, 12 broilers (6 weeks; 2.70+/-0.34 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatments of 7.4, 15.0, and 22.5 mM sodium [36Cl]chlorate dissolved in drinking water (n=4 broilers per treatment). Exposure to chlorate, dissolved in drinking water, occurred at 0 and 24 h (250 mL per exposure), feed was withdrawn at hour 38, water was removed at hour 48, and birds were slaughtered at hour 54 (16 h after feed removal and 8 h after water removal). The radioactivity was rapidly eliminated in excreta with 69-78% of the total administered radioactivity being excreted by slaughter. Total radioactive residues were proportional to dose in all edible tissues with chloride ion comprising greater than 98.5% of the radioactive residue for the tissue (9.4-97.8 ppm chlorate equivalents). Chlorate residues were typically greatest in the skin (0.33-0.82 ppm), gizzard (0.1-0.137 ppm), and dark muscle (0.05-0.14 ppm). Adipose, liver, and white muscle tissue contained chlorate concentrations from 0.03 to 0.13 ppm. In contrast, chlorate concentrations in excreta eliminated during the 6 h period prior to slaughter ranged from 53 to 71 ppm. Collectively, these data indicate that broilers rapidly convert chlorate residues to an innocuous metabolite, chloride ion, and that chlorate residues in excreta remain fairly high during the time around slaughter. Because the target tissue of chlorate is the lower gastrointestinal tract, the relatively high distribution of parent chlorate to inedible gastrointestinal tissues and low distribution to edible tissues is favorable for the biological activity and for food safety considerations. These data, when used in conjunction with a toxicological assessment of chlorate, can be used to determine a likely risk/benefit ratio for chlorate.
Authors:
David J Smith; James A Byrd; Robin C Anderson
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2007-06-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  55     ISSN:  0021-8561     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2007 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-07-03     Completed Date:  2007-09-19     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5898-903     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Biosciences Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1605 Albrecht Boulevard, Fargo, North Dakota 58105-5674, USA. smithd@fargo.ars.usda.gov
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Chickens
Chlorates / administration & dosage,  analysis*
Chlorine / administration & dosage,  analysis*
Drug Residues / analysis
Food Contamination / analysis
Male
Meat / analysis*
Radioisotopes / administration & dosage,  analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chlorates; 0/Radioisotopes; 7782-50-5/Chlorine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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