Document Detail

Total folate and folic acid intake from foods and dietary supplements in the United States: 2003-2006.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19923379     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The term total folate intake is used to represent folate that occurs naturally in food as well as folic acid from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folic acid has been referred to as a double-edged sword because of its beneficial role in the prevention of neural tube defects and yet possible deleterious effects on certain cancers and cognitive function. Previous monitoring efforts did not include folic acid from dietary supplements and are therefore not complete.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to combine data on dietary folate (as measured by two 24-h recalls) and folic acid from dietary supplements (collected with a 30-d frequency questionnaire) with the use of the bias-corrected best power method to adjust for within-person variability.
DESIGN: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Linear contrasts were constructed to determine differences in dietary and total folate intake for age and racial-ethnic groups by sex; prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes is presented.
RESULTS: In 2003-2006, 53% of the US population used dietary supplements; 34.5% used dietary supplements that contained folic acid. Total folate intake (in dietary folate equivalents) was higher for men (813 +/- 14) than for women (724 +/- 16) and higher for non-Hispanic whites (827 +/- 19) than for Mexican Americans (615 +/- 11) and non-Hispanic blacks (597 +/- 12); 29% of non-Hispanic black women had inadequate intakes. Total folate and folic acid intakes are highest for those aged > or =50 y, and 5% exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.
CONCLUSIONS: Improved total folate intake is warranted in targeted subgroups, which include women of childbearing age and non-Hispanic black women, whereas other population groups are at risk of excessive intake.
Regan L Bailey; Kevin W Dodd; Jaime J Gahche; Johanna T Dwyer; Margaret A McDowell; Elizabeth A Yetley; Christopher A Sempos; Vicki L Burt; Kathy L Radimer; Mary Frances Picciano
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-11-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  91     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2010 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-12-21     Completed Date:  2010-01-13     Revised Date:  2013-05-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  231-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Office of Dietary Supplements and the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7517, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Continental Population Groups
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Supplements / analysis*
Energy Metabolism
Ethnic Groups
European Continental Ancestry Group
Folic Acid / analysis*,  metabolism
Food Analysis*
Food Habits
Food, Fortified
Health Surveys
Hispanic Americans
Interviews as Topic
Mexican Americans
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
United States
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
59-30-3/Folic Acid
Comment In:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1408-9; author reply 1409   [PMID:  20237139 ]
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan;91(1):3-4   [PMID:  19955398 ]

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