Document Detail

Total arteriovenous CO2 removal: simplifying extracorporeal support for respiratory failure.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9436542     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: To reduce the complexity, complications, and cost of conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, we have developed a technique of simplified arteriovenous extracorporeal CO2 removal (AVCO2R) with a low-resistance membrane gas exchanger for total CO2 removal to provide lung rest in the setting of severe respiratory failure. METHODS: We initially used AVCO2R in healthy animals to quantify the gas exchange capabilities of the system and establish ventilator management protocols for the subsequent studies of AVCO2R in a large animal model of respiratory failure secondary to a severe smoke inhalation injury. RESULTS: In healthy sheep the maximum spontaneous arteriovenous flow ranged from 1,350 to 1,500 mL/min, whereas CO2 removal plateaued at a blood flow of approximately 1,000 mL/min in which 112 +/- 3 mL/min CO2 was removed, allowing an 84% reduction in the minute ventilation of from 6.9 +/- 0.8 L/min to 1.1 +/- 0.4 L/min (p < 0.01) without triggering hypercapnia. A subsequent reduction in extracorporeal flow at a reduced minute volume led to the development of hypercapnia only if it decreased to less than 500 mL/min. We also applied AVCO2R in mechanically ventilated sheep with a severe smoke inhalation injury and removed 95% (111 +/- 4 mL/min) of the total CO2 production. This allowed the minute ventilation to be reduced by 95% and the peak inspiratory pressures by 52% (both p < 0.05) over 6 hours and produced no adverse hemodynamic effects. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen was maintained above 100 mm Hg at a maximally reduced minute volume. The mean AVCO2R flow was 1,213 +/- 29 mL/min, averaging 27% +/- 1% of the cardiac output. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that AVCO2R in a simple arteriovenous shunt is a less complicated technique than extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and is capable of total CO2 removal that allows a significant reduction in the minute ventilation and peak airway pressure during severe respiratory failure.
R L Brunston; J B Zwischenberger; W Tao; V J Cardenas; D L Traber; A Bidani
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Annals of thoracic surgery     Volume:  64     ISSN:  0003-4975     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. Thorac. Surg.     Publication Date:  1997 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-02-10     Completed Date:  1998-02-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  15030100R     Medline TA:  Ann Thorac Surg     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1599-604; discussion 1604-5     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch and Shriners Burns Institute, Galveston 77555-0528, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical / methods*
Carbon Dioxide / blood*
Extracorporeal Circulation / methods*
Respiratory Insufficiency / therapy*
Smoke Inhalation Injury / complications
Reg. No./Substance:
124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide
Comment In:
Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Dec;64(6):1581-2   [PMID:  9436538 ]

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