Document Detail

Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2157651     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Reported incidences of tool use and tool making for three wild chimpanzee populations increase from Mahale (12 and 3 types of use and making, respectively), Gombe (16 and 3) to Taï (19 and 6). Sticks are commonly used and prepared at all three sites. However, Taï chimpanzees seem to perform more modifications on the material before using it. They are also the only chimpanzees seen to pound objects with tools and to combine two different tool uses to get access to one food item. Tool making is the rule for abundant material (grass, twigs), but appears to be rarer for scarce, hard material (clubs, stones). Factors involved in the acquisition and the benefit of tool use are discussed along with factors affecting the frequency and complexity of tool making in chimpanzees.
C Boesch; H Boesch
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology     Volume:  54     ISSN:  0015-5713     ISO Abbreviation:  Folia Primatol.     Publication Date:  1990  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1990-05-24     Completed Date:  1990-05-24     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370723     Medline TA:  Folia Primatol (Basel)     Country:  SWITZERLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  86-99     Citation Subset:  IM    
Ethology and Wildlife Research Department, University of Zürich, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Animals, Wild / psychology*
Behavior, Animal*
Bone Marrow
Cote d'Ivoire
Feeding Behavior
Pan troglodytes / psychology*

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