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Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs): The Role in Tumor Progression.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22649649     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major components of the innate immune system that recognize the conserved molecular structures of pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; PAMPs). TLRs are found in many different cell types, ranging from epithelial to immunocompetent cells. TLR binding triggers the expression of several adapter proteins and downstream kinases, leading to the induction of key pro-inflammatory mediators. This results in the activation of both the innate immune response (elevated expression of antiapoptotic proteins, proinflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial proteins), as well as the adaptive immune response (maturation of the dendritic cells, antigen presentation, etc.). In consequence of their ability to enhance the specific and nonspecific immune reactions of an organism, TLR agonists are widely used in the therapy of infectious diseases and, as adjuvants, in the therapy of malignant neoplasia. However, to date, TLRs have had the opposite effects on tumor progression. On the one hand, TLR ligands can suppress tumor growth. On the other hand, TLR agonists can promote the survival of malignant cells and increase their resistance to chemotherapy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available data on the effects of TLRs and their agonists on tumor progression, as well as the mechanisms underlying the differences in the effects of TLRs on tumor growth.
D V Shcheblyakov; D Y Logunov; A I Tukhvatulin; M M Shmarov; B S Naroditsky; A L Gintsburg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta naturae     Volume:  2     ISSN:  2075-8251     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Naturae     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-31     Completed Date:  2012-08-23     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101525823     Medline TA:  Acta Naturae     Country:  Russia (Federation)    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  21-9     Citation Subset:  -    
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
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