Document Detail

Tissue patterning in the developing mouse limb.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1702679     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The developing mouse fore- and hindlimbs begin as bumps on the flank of the embryo and grow out to form miniature models of the adult limb during a five day period from E9.5 to E14.5. In this paper I show a series of embryos taken at half-day intervals during limb development and outline the timetable of patterning for each of the component tissues of a limb: epidermis, connective tissues, muscle, nerves and blood vessels. Scanning electron micrographs, supplemented by histological sections, are presented to define a set of standard stages for the description of mouse limb development. I discuss my observations of the mouse limb in the light of current theories of vertebrate limb development, which are based on classic manipulation experiments in the chick as well as more recent molecular data from the mouse system. The limb skeletal pattern in a mouse is laid down in a proximodistal direction, as it is in a bird: the E11.5 forelimb reveals the first signs of a humerus and by E14.5 even the most distal phalanges of the hand are formed. At this late stage ossification sleeves are seen around the proximal limb elements as the cartilage template begins to be converted to a bony skeleton. Myogenic cells stainable with the MF20 antibody against early muscle myosin heavy chain are first seen in the mouse forelimb at E11.5, which is also when the first nerve fascicles begin to enter the limb. From E11.5 to E14.5 both muscle and nerve patterns mature to give distinct muscles at all proximodistal levels of the limb, each muscle with its own nerve branch, and a cutaneous nerve plexus that extends to the fingertips. The developing skin of the mouse limb matures from a bi-layered epidermis overlying an avascular, but otherwise nondescript, prospective dermal layer of mesenchyme at E9.5, to a 4- or 5-layered epidermis with early hair placodes and the first signs of a distinct dermal layer at E14.5. Notable differences between mouse and chick limb development lie in the relatively late formation of the apical ectodermal ridge in the mouse and its unexpectedly close relations with blood vessels, in the absence of anterior and posterior necrotic zones and, possibly, in a late migration of myogenic cells into the mouse limb bud.
P Martin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The International journal of developmental biology     Volume:  34     ISSN:  0214-6282     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Dev. Biol.     Publication Date:  1990 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1991-02-19     Completed Date:  1991-02-19     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8917470     Medline TA:  Int J Dev Biol     Country:  SPAIN    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  323-36     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Human Anatomy, Oxford University, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Cartilage / embryology,  ultrastructure
Cell Survival
Chick Embryo / growth & development*
Connective Tissue / embryology,  metabolism
Epidermis / ultrastructure
Extremities / embryology*,  innervation
Forelimb / embryology,  innervation,  ultrastructure
Genes, Homeobox
Hindlimb / embryology,  innervation,  ultrastructure
Mice / embryology*,  genetics
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Muscles / embryology,  innervation,  ultrastructure
Organ Specificity
Staining and Labeling
Synaptic Transmission

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