Document Detail

Timing of Spawning and Early Development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21385954     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
The spawning behavior and early embryogenesis of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia) were observed in August 2009 off Okinawa Island, Japan. P. tuberculosa released zygotes just after high tide around new moon nights. The mean diameter of zygotes was 365.6 ± s.d.14.8 μm, and zygotes did not contain any symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). About 2 h after spawning, the first cleavage furrow appeared on one side of the zygotes, although it was uncertain when eggs were fertilized. After second cleavage, the arrangement of blastomeres was pseudospherical. At 9 h after spawning, the embryo became a concave-convex dish shape, then gastrulation occurred and the blastopore was formed. Seven-day old larvae were ellipsoid and about 700 μm long, with an open mouth at one end. Two weeks after spawning, the larvae developed a longitudinal band of long cilia (= ventral ciliate band) that is characteristic of zoanthella larvae. In P. tuberculosa, larvae show a non-radial body plan and then metamorphose to almost-radial (in outward appearance) polyps after settlement. These results may support a hypothesis that a common ancestor of Cnidaria had a bilateral body plan that has been secondarily lost in some extant cnidarians.
Mamiko Hirose; Masami Obuchi; Euichi Hirose; James D Reimer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Biological bulletin     Volume:  220     ISSN:  1939-8697     ISO Abbreviation:  Biol. Bull.     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-09     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2984727R     Medline TA:  Biol Bull     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  23-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Molecular Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology Laboratory, Rising Star Program, Transdisciplinary Research Organization for Subtropical Island Studies (TRO-SIS), University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0213, Japan.
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