Document Detail


Time-to-collision judgments under realistic driving conditions.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16884053     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceived time to collision (TTC) with automobile drivers under realistic approach, rear-end crash scenario conditions. BACKGROUND: TTC refers to the time before impact if prevailing conditions continue. METHOD: In this test track study involving 51 drivers ranging from 20 to 70 years old, the driver's vision was occluded at either 3.6 or 5.6 s TTC during an in-lane approach to a lead vehicle. Drivers provided TTC estimates by pressing a button the instant they felt that they would have collided with the vehicle ahead. RESULTS: Results indicated that TTC was consistently underestimated. The TTC ratio (perceived TTC/actual TTC) increased as driver speed decreased and as relative speed increased. These ratios were largely unaffected by age, gender, actual TTC, viewing time (1 s vs. continuous), and the presence of an eyes-forward, mental addition distraction task. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that under these low TTC conditions drivers estimate TTC in a relatively uniform fashion and that they are capable of providing this estimate based on a brief glimpse to the vehicle ahead. APPLICATION: These results are being used to develop an alert timing approach for a forward collision warning system intended to assist drivers in avoiding rear-end crashes with the vehicle ahead.
Authors:
Raymond J Kiefer; Carol A Flannagan; Christian J Jerome
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human factors     Volume:  48     ISSN:  0018-7208     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum Factors     Publication Date:  2006  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-08-03     Completed Date:  2006-09-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374660     Medline TA:  Hum Factors     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  334-45     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Affiliation:
General Motors Structure and Safety Integration Center, 30200 Mound Rd., Mail Code 480-111-E18, Warren, MI 48090-9010, USA. raymond.j.kiefer@gm.com
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Accidents, Traffic*
Adult
Aged
Automobile Driving*
Female
Florida
Humans
Judgment*
Male
Middle Aged

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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