Document Detail

Tick innate immunity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21528697     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Ticks are blood feeding parasites transmitting a wide variety of pathogens to their vertebrate hosts. The vector competence of ticks is tightly linked with their immune system. Despite its importance, our knowledge of tick innate immunity is still inadequate and the limited number of sufficiently characterized immune molecules and cellular reactions are dispersed across numerous tick species. The phagocytosis of microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be coupled with a primitive complement-like system, which possibly involves self/nonself recognition by fibrinogen-related lectins and the action of thioester-containing proteins. Ticks do not seem to possess a pro-phenoloxidase system leading to melanization and also coagulation of tick hemolymph has not been experimentally proven. They are capable of defending themselves against microbial infection with a variety of antimicrobial peptides comprising lysozymes, defensins and molecules not found in other invertebrates. Virtually nothing is known about the signaling cascades involved in the regulation of tick antimicrobial immune responses. Midgut immunity is apparently the decisive factor of tick vector competence. The gut content is a hostile environment for ingested microbes, which is mainly due to the antimicrobial activity of hemoglobin fragments generated by the digestion of the host blood as well as other antimicrobial peptides. Reactive oxygen species possibly also play an important role in the tick-pathogen interaction. The recent release of the Ixodes scapularis genome and the feasibility of RNA interference in ticks promise imminent and substantial progress in tick innate immunity research.
Petr Kopácek; Ondrej Hajdusek; Veronika Buresová; Sirlei Daffre
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Advances in experimental medicine and biology     Volume:  708     ISSN:  0065-2598     ISO Abbreviation:  Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-02     Completed Date:  2011-05-19     Revised Date:  2011-12-20    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0121103     Medline TA:  Adv Exp Med Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  137-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovská, Ceské Budĕjovice, Czech Republic.
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MeSH Terms
Hemocytes / immunology
Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology
Immunity, Innate / immunology*
Ticks / immunology*,  microbiology

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