Document Detail

Thyroid hormone supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in infants undergoing cardiac surgery.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15266523     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Paediatric studies have demonstrated that cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a decline in thyroid hormone levels. Adult patients who undergo open heart surgery and receive triiodothyronine supplementation have demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in cardiac output which has been associated with an improved clinical outcome. Thyroid hormone supplementation in infants may also reduce post-operative morbidity and mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if peri-operative thyroid hormone supplementation or replacement in infants undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass improves post-operative and longer term morbidity and mortality.
SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE (1966 - December 2003), EMBASE (1980 - December 2003), CINAHL (1982 - December 2003), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2003), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the English language.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials using random allocation to peri-operative thyroid hormone therapy (supplementation or replacement) compared to control (placebo or no therapy) in infants (birth to one year of age) undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Thyroid hormone therapy must be tri-iodothyronine.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Primary clinical outcomes included measures of post-operative morbidity and mortality. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used in the assessment of trial quality. Treatment effects were expressed using relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD).
MAIN RESULTS: Two very small studies were identified that tested peri-operative thyroid hormone supplementation or replacement in infants aged less than one year undergoing cardiac surgery (Chowdhury 2001; Portman 2000). In the Chowdhury 2001 study, a subgroup of nine neonates was eligible for this review. No deaths occurred during either study. Chowdhury 2001 found no significant effect of peri-operative thyroid hormone supplementation in neonates on either length of hospital stay or duration of mechanical ventilation. Portman 2000 found no significant difference in dopamine requirements for the treatment versus control groups for the first 24 hours post operatively, while in the Chowdhury neonatal subgroup, inotrope requirements were significantly lower in the treatment group. Portman 2000 reported significant differences between the two groups at 1 and 24 hours post operatively for free T3 and at 1 hour post operatively for total T3 levels. Total T4 levels showed no significant difference between groups, either pre-cardiopulmonary bypass or up to 72 hours post operatively.
REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: At present, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effects of tri-iodothyronine supplementation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Further randomised controlled trials which include sufficiently large subject numbers in a variety of different age strata (neonates, infants and older children) need to be undertaken.
S Dimmick; N Badawi; T Randell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Cochrane database of systematic reviews     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-493X     ISO Abbreviation:  Cochrane Database Syst Rev     Publication Date:  2004  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-07-21     Completed Date:  2004-11-30     Revised Date:  2013-06-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100909747     Medline TA:  Cochrane Database Syst Rev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  CD004220     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neonatology, Westmead Childrens Hospital, Corner of Hawkesbury Road and Hainsworth Street, Westmead, NSW, Australia, 2145.
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MeSH Terms
Infant, Newborn
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Thoracic Surgical Procedures*
Thyroid Hormones / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects,  blood
Triiodothyronine / administration & dosage
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Thyroid Hormones; 6893-02-3/Triiodothyronine

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