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Thrombotic microangiopathies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24360024     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical features and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) including acquired and congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), Shiga toxin-induced and atypical (non-Shiga toxin-induced) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and the TMAs associated with pregnancy, drugs, and organ transplantation.
METHODS: PubMed Medline was used to identify articles published from 2000 to July 2013 using the following key words: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Shiga toxin, ADAMTS13, and eculizumab. Articles in languages other than English, papers available in abstract form only, and nearly all single case reports were excluded. Small series, reports from registries and study groups, reviews, guidelines, and articles concerning pathophysiology and therapy were preferentially considered.
RESULTS: Impaired post-secretion processing of unusually large von Willebrand multimers due to deficiency of ADAMTS13 (IgG antibodies or congenital), dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway (mutations and/or specific antibodies), and endothelial injury are pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the TMAs. Acquired and congenital TTP are due primarily to severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, atypical HUS is commonly associated with complement dysregulation, and Shiga toxin, drugs, immune complexes, and others likely damage endothelium. However, there is considerable mechanistic overlap, and the TMAs often have multifactorial causation. Plasma procedures, complement pathway inhibition, immunosuppression, and general supportive care are the principal therapies.
CONCLUSIONS: The TMAs are very important conditions because of their associated organ damage and mortality rates. Prompt recognition and categorization by both clinical presentation and pathophysiologic mechanisms should become routine as they are crucial to an optimal treatment plan. Treatment advances have substantially reduced the morbidity of these disorders. Investigational therapies are promising.
Authors:
Michael H Rosove
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-11-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-866X     ISO Abbreviation:  Semin. Arthritis Rheum.     Publication Date:  2013 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-12-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1306053     Medline TA:  Semin Arthritis Rheum     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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