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Thalidomide suppresses inflammation in adenine-induced CKD with uraemia in mice.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23345625     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BackgroundPersistent systemic inflammation has been widely recognized in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Intervention therapies aiming for the blockade of inflammatory cytokines are considered attractive approaches for CKD patients with signs of chronic inflammation. In this context, thalidomide, due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, may represent an alternative strategy of treatment. In the present study, we developed an experimental model of CKD with uraemia in mice, induced by a diet rich in adenine, which causes progressive renal dysfunction, resembling the human uraemic features. Inflammatory parameters were analysed in this model of CKD and the potential beneficial effects of thalidomide as an anti-inflammatory drug was also investigated.MethodsC57/BL-6 mice were fed with an adenine-containing diet during a period of 6 weeks. Thirty mice were divided into three groups: Control group (animals receiving normal diet), ADE group (mice receiving adenine-containing diet) and ADE + TLD group (CKD mice receiving thalidomide, 30 mg/kg/day, by gavage). Besides biochemical and histopathological changes, local and systemic inflammatory parameters were also analysed, including expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 in kidney samples by real-time RT-PCR and quantification of serum levels of cytokines. Finally, the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for NF-κB was also examined.ResultsAdenine-fed mice developed advanced CKD characterized by a marked increase in serum urea, creatinine, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. In addition, histological changes of tubulointerstitial injury, characterized by deposition of crystals in the kidney, accompanied by tubular dilatation, degeneration of proximal tubular epithelium with loss of the brush border, inflammatory cellular infiltration, foreign-body granuloma formation and interstitial fibrosis were also evident. By immunohistochemistry, Mac-2- and α-SMA-positive cells were identified in the tubulointerstitial compartment. Treatment with thalidomide significantly reduced serum urea, creatinine, phosphorus and iPTH levels and protected against tubulointerstitial injury. Local and systemic inflammation in the mice model of adenine-induced CKD was confirmed by the findings of significantly high expression of cytokine mRNA levels and NF-κB activation in the kidney tissue as well as marked increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Thalidomide treatment significantly reduced gene expression of these cytokines and the activation of the NF-κB in the renal tissue and the circulating levels of cytokines.ConclusionsDietary adenine caused advanced CKD with uraemia in mice providing a useful experimental model to study molecular and morphological changes associated with this disease. The negative impact of inflammation in this CKD model was overcome by the marked anti-inflammatory effects of thalidomide, promoting renal protection.
Alexandre C Santana; Sabrina Degaspari; Sergio Catanozi; Humberto Dellê; Larissa de Sá Lima; Cleonice Silva; Paula Blanco; Kim Solez; Cristoforo Scavone; Irene L Noronha
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1460-2385     ISO Abbreviation:  Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8706402     Medline TA:  Nephrol Dial Transplant     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
1Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Nephrology, Division of Nephrology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
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