Document Detail


Tetrachloroethylene emissions and exposure in dry cleaning.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15666472     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) emissions and the exposure of workers in six commercial and three industrial dry-cleaning establishments that use dry-to-dry machines were determined. The personal samples and area samples [8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) and short-term exposure] were collected with charcoal tubes and passive monitors. The temporal variation of PCE concentration in the workplace air was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared analyzer (FTIR). The PCE emission rates were determined by multiplying the average PCE concentration in the room and the total airflow rate in the room. The PCE emissions were related to the cleaning rate in units of kg/hr. The operators' mean TWA exposure in commercial shops and industrial establishments was 28 (4.1 ppm) and 32 mg/m3 (4.6 ppm), and the pressers' exposure was 3.4 (0.5 ppm) and 7.7 mg/m3 (1.1 ppm), respectively. The customer service personnel had the lowest TWA exposure with a mean value of 0.8 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm). The highest peak concentration (2300 mg/m3; 334 ppm) was observed during cleaning of the lint and button trap, during which operation respirators were used. The PCE emission rates ranged from 4 to 118 g/hr corresponding to emission factors (mass of solvent evaporated per mass of cleaned cloths) of 0.3-3.6 g/kg. The workers' exposure to PCE was below the occupational limit values in the United States [according to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)] and in Finland. The outdoor PCE emissions were clearly below the limit values given in the European Union volatile organic compound (VOC) directive requirements.
Authors:
J Räisänen; R Niemelä; C Rosenberg
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)     Volume:  51     ISSN:  1096-2247     ISO Abbreviation:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Publication Date:  2001 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-01-24     Completed Date:  2005-02-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503111     Medline TA:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1671-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis
Humans
Laundering*
Models, Theoretical*
Occupational Exposure*
Risk Assessment
Solvents / analysis*
Tetrachloroethylene / analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Solvents; 127-18-4/Tetrachloroethylene

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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