Document Detail

Teratology testing: I. Development and status of short-term prescreens. II. Biotransformation of teratogens as studied in whole embryo culture.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  6364154     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The development and role of short-term prescreening tests have been described and discussed in the first section. In the second section we have summarized the results of studies of the biotransformation and bioactivation of teratogens in a whole embryo culture system. The effect of adding a hepatic monooxygenase with or without cofactors or inhibitors gives information on the phase I bioactivation of teratogens. The growth retardation and defect rate can be correlated with the concentration of teratogen added. Four teratogens (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, rifampicin, and 2-acetylaminofluorene) were bioactivated in vitro by a liver monooxygenase system; one (cytochalasin D) was inactivated and seven others were active without bioactivation. Those that were active without bioactivation were sodium salicylate, niridazole, phosphoramide mustard, acrolein, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, 4-ketocyclophosphamide, ethanol, and acetaldehyde. These results establish that biotransformational variables must be considered if mass-screening programs are to have any validity.
T H Shepard; A G Fantel; P E Mirkes; J C Greenaway; E Faustman-Watts; M Campbell; M R Juchau
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Progress in clinical and biological research     Volume:  135     ISSN:  0361-7742     ISO Abbreviation:  Prog. Clin. Biol. Res.     Publication Date:  1983  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1984-03-08     Completed Date:  1984-03-08     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7605701     Medline TA:  Prog Clin Biol Res     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  147-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Embryo, Mammalian / metabolism*
Embryo, Nonmammalian*
Liver / enzymology
Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism
Organ Culture Techniques
Teratogens / metabolism,  toxicity*
Toxicology / methods
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Teratogens; EC 1.-/Mixed Function Oxygenases

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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